Sporotrichosis is an infection of the skin through the fungus sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii), as this fungus is associated with mold found in stale bread or yeast.

Most often this infection is common in farmers working with flowers, Moss, hay, and soil.

Sporotrichosis Diseases

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Symptoms Of Sporotrichosis

Symptoms often begin in a mild form during the first weeks after infection, and the most prominent symptoms of sporotrichosis:

1. Symptoms of cutaneous sporotrichosis

  • A firm bump on the skin, the color of which ranges from pink to purple.
  • Holding but mostly painless.
  • An ulcer.

It should be noted that in most 60% of cases, mold spreads along the lymph nodes and over time the nodules spread to the affected arm or leg.

In rare cases, the infection may spread to other body parts, such as bones and joints, lungs, and the brain, especially in people with weakened immune systems.

2. Symptoms of pulmonary sporotrichosis

They include the following:

  • Shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain.
  • Cough.
  • Fever.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Unintentional weight loss.

Causes And Risk Factors Of Sporotrichosis

The cause may depend on the place of infection, the causes of sporotrichosis include:

1. Causes of Cutaneous Sporotrichosis

Spore trichinosis usually occurs when mold accumulates under the skin caused by a pink fork or a sharp stick, rarely cats or animals can transmit this disease.

Also, the presence of open wounds on the skin may increase the risk of developing sporotrichosis.

2. Causes of Pulmonary Sporotrichosis

In rare cases, the fungus can be inhaled or swallowed, causing infection in other parts of the body other than the skin, such as the lung.

Complications of Sporotrichosis

Sporotrichosis of the skin or lymph nodes usually does not cause any serious complications, however, a person may develop open ulcers, which cause what is known as cellulitis.

Sometimes the rash can affect the eyes and cause what is known as conjunctivitis or pink eye, and it is worth noting that some cases may become permanent if the infection is left untreated.

Diagnosis of Sporotrichosis

The doctor conducts tests to confirm the diagnosis of sporotrichosis, which include a biopsy of one of the nodules which are examined under a microscope to determine the type of mold.

The doctor may also recommend blood tests that help detect severe forms of cutaneous sporotrichosis.

Treatment of Sporotrichosis

The treatment of sporotrichosis depends on the affected site of the disease, they include:

1. Treatment of skin infections

This infection is treated with a supersaturated potassium iodide solution (Supersaturated potassium iodide solution), which is used for 3 - 6 months until all symptoms disappear.

Itraconazole can also be used for up to six months.

2. Treatment of sporotrichosis infection of bones and joints

If the sporotrichosis infection spreads to the bones and joints, it is difficult to treat this infection, and most often Itraconazole is used as it is rare to respond to potassium iodide treatment.

Amphotericin can also be used intravenously for several months, and in some cases, the doctor may resort to surgery to remove the affected bone.

3. Treatment of lung infection

Pneumonitis is treated with potassium iodide, itraconazole, and, amphotericin but in varying doses.

Sometimes the doctor may have to perform surgery to remove the affected areas of the lung.

4. Treatment of brain infection

There is no information available on the treatment of meningitis caused by sporotrichosis as it is rare, but amphotericin 5 is usually used in addition to fluorocytosine.

Prevention Of Sporotrichosis

The most prominent methods of preventing sporotrichosis are:

  • People who work with flowers or straw, Moss should cover cracks or wounds in the skin.
  • It is advisable to wear long boots and gloves to prevent wounds and infection with sporotrichosis.
  • Long sleeves and long trousers will help protect against wound infection.

People became infected with sporotrichosis in Brazil from contact with cats. This form of sporotrichosis (Sporothrix brasiliensis) is not found in the United States. But in recent days it has appeared in the UK for the first time ever, be careful with unfamiliar animals, especially cats. Bites and scratches of cats can spread the fungus that causes this and other diseases. This fungus is most often spread by stray cats and domestic cats allowed outdoors.

For more information related to the same topic, you can look at this article from the CDC Journal.

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