High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

What is high blood pressure?

With each beat, the heart pushes blood through the arteries. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The term blood pressure expresses the pressure that the blood applies to the walls of the arteries. And without blood pressure, blood will not flow through the blood vessels, and the person will die. At the same time, if the blood pressure rises significantly, it strains the heart and damages the arteries and other organs.

high blood pressure

After several years, high blood pressure can cause serious problems, such as stroke, heart failure, stroke, and kidney damage.

Hypertension is called the silent killer because it usually causes no symptoms until very late.

High blood pressure causes more deaths and serious health problems than almost any other condition, but most of its complications can be prevented through proper treatment

Exercising, eating less salt, losing weight, quitting smoking, and limiting alcohol intake help lower blood pressure

Also, the patient may need to take tablets for the treatment of blood pressure - sometimes 2 or 3 different types.

It is important to continue taking the medicine even if the patient feels unwell.

Measurement of high blood pressure

Doctors use a sleeve-shaped wearable device to measure blood pressure. Two numbers are being recorded. For example, the blood pressure may be 120/80, let's say "120 over 80".

A higher value expresses the higher pressure in the arteries, which is when the heart pushes blood out. This value is called systolic blood pressure.

The lower value expresses the lower pressure in the arteries, which is when the heart relaxes before pushing the blood out again. This value is called diastolic blood pressure.

Blood pressure is not the same every time it is measured. It also varies slightly throughout the day, and from day to day. But the reading usually stays within 5 or 10 points all the time.

How do doctors classify high Blood pressure?

In adults, doctors classify blood pressure as:

Normal: when it is less than 120/80

High: when the systolic pressure is between 120-129, and the diastolic pressure is below 80

The first stage of hypertension: is when systolic pressure is between 130-139, or when diastolic pressure is between 80-89

The second stage of hypertension: is when the systolic pressure is 140 or more, or when the diastolic pressure is 90 or more.

Causes of high blood pressure

High blood pressure usually does not have an obvious cause, it just happens. This type of hypertension often runs in families (a hereditary condition). It is more common among people over 45 years of age.

The risk of developing this type of hypertension increases in the following cases:

  • Getting older
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Lack of activity
  • Psychological distress
  • Smoking
  • Eat a lot of salt

Less commonly, other medical problems can cause high blood pressure, especially:

  • Kidney problems
  • Hormonal problems, such as the production of excessive amounts of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) or the production of small amounts of adrenal hormone (Cushing's syndrome)
  • Pregnancy is sometimes

Many drugs and substances can raise blood pressure. Blood pressure decreases when the pharmacological effects go away or the effect of the substance fades unless the person has high blood pressure for other reasons. Some of the common substances that cause high blood pressure include:

  • Alcohol
  • Contraceptive pills
  • Caffeine
  • Corticosteroids
  • Nasal decongestants, such as phenylephrine pseudoephedrine, and pseudoephedrine.
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (eg ibuprofen)
  • Stimulant drugs (such as amphetamines and cocaine)

Symptoms of High blood pressure

High blood pressure usually causes no symptoms. A person cannot predict his blood pressure spasm based on how he feels. Patients often think that headaches, nosebleeds, dizziness, feeling tired, and other general symptoms are caused by high blood pressure. But the likelihood of these things happening does not decrease when blood pressure is normal.

But, if hypertension causes complications, such as heart attack, heart failure, or stroke, the patient may have symptoms of these conditions, such as:
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Headaches
  • Mental confusion or difficulty speaking
  • Blurred vision
  • Weakness or numbness on one side of the body

Diagnosis of high blood pressure

Screening tests for hypertension 

Doctors use a sleeve-shaped wearable device to measure blood pressure 3 or more times. Doctors may use a stethoscope or an automated device to measure blood pressure. Doctors can measure blood pressure in the arm or leg.

The doctor may notice high blood pressure when a person is in a state of tension or is not relaxed, which is a common feeling in the doctor's office. The doctor may ask the person to sit for a while or come back later to make sure the person feels comfortable so that the reading is accurate. Sometimes the doctor asks the patient to measure his blood pressure with a home device over one or two days.

Tests in case of high blood pressure

If a person has high blood pressure, the doctor will do the following:
  • Clinical examination
  • Eye examination
  • ECG-the test that measures the electrical currents in the heart and records them on a sheet of paper
  • Blood tests and urinary tests
The doctor may also do other tests to see if there is an unfamiliar cause of high blood pressure. These tests are carried out, especially if the patient is young or conventional treatment has not succeeded in lowering blood pressure.

Treatment of high blood pressure

It is necessary to treat hypertension. However, changing some behaviors and taking medications can help to control them. Treatment depends on the patient's age and other medical problems he has.

Once treatment has started, it is important to check your blood pressure frequently to make sure it has reached the correct level. The doctor may also ask the patient to check blood pressure at home, and keep a record to inform the doctor about it at the next visit. The doctor may ask the patient to add or adjust certain medications to lower blood pressure.

Lifestyle Modification

Every person suffering from hypertension should adjust their lifestyle. Doctors usually suggest a diet called Dash DASH (which is an abbreviation for the term dietary approaches intended to Stop Hypertension Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). The DASH diet requires eating large amounts of vegetables and fruits and using low-fat dairy products. Also, a person can eat chicken meat, fish, whole grains, and nuts, and limit the consumption of red meat, sweets, and salt.

Doctors may also advise the following:
  • Start exercising, or increase the rate of exercise
  • Weight reduction if a person is overweight
  • Limit the intake of alcoholic beverages
  • Stop smoking;
  • Learn to relax and manage the intensity


Doctors often prescribe one or more drugs to adjust blood pressure. The mechanism of action of various drugs in lowering blood pressure varies. Sometimes it takes some time to find the right pharmacological participation and the right doses of it to lower blood pressure to the target level.

Most patients need to use medications throughout their lives. Both the patient and his doctor must check his blood pressure to make sure that it does not rise.

The patient should always tell the doctor whether the blood pressure medication causes any discomfort to him. The doctor can change the medication or the number of its doses to help the patient get rid of unwanted symptoms.
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